Need Urgent help with this project?
1.0.Background of study
Diseases and economic outcomes are theoretically assumed to be inversely related. Their nature of direct impact on human health and high morbidity and mortality they caused among countries' population make them threat to development activities, productivity and progress in society. Diseases cause “pain, suffering, fear, and dread; loss of working time and income; worry, anxiety, and breakup of families disruptions in the life and welfare of the community; and costs of care, coping, and prevention, which are capable of depressing growth and development in the economy. In January 2020, severe cases of respiratory illnesses were noted to occur in Wuhan, China and then Italy, United States of America. A novel influenza Corona virus (COVID 19) was identified as the cause and it rapidly evolved into a pandemic. Cases of the strain were first identified in Wuhan in early December, 2019 and soon appeared across the country. As of February 12 2020, there have been 37,000 confirmed cases and 3000 deaths in China. While this pandemic has been moderate or milder than previous pandemics such as the Spanish flu of 1918-1919, similarities can be drawn between the two in regards to the median age of cases. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new virus. The disease causes respiratory illness (like the flu) with symptoms such as a cough, fever, and in more severe cases, difficulty breathing. According to the WHO, the most common symptoms of Covid-19 are fever, tiredness and a dry cough. Some patients may also have a runny nose, sore throat, nasal congestion and aches and pains or diarrhea. About 80% of people who get Covid-19 experience a mild case – about as serious as a regular cold – and recover without needing any special treatment. About one in six people, the WHO says, become seriously ill. The elderly and people with underlying medical problems like high blood pressure, heart problems or diabetes, or chronic respiratory conditions, are at a greater risk of serious illness from Covid-19. What became known as Covid-19, or the coronavirus, started in late 2019 as a cluster of pneumonia cases with an unknown cause. The cause of the pneumonia was found to be a new virus – severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, or Sars-CoV-2. The illness caused by the virus is Covid-19. Now declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), the majority of people who contract Covid-19 suffer only mild, cold-like symptoms. WHO says about 80% of people with Covid-19 recover without needing any specialist treatment? Only about one person in six becomes seriously ill “and develops difficulty breathing”. When people with Covid-19 develop a cough and fever, Wilson (2020) says this is a result of the infection reaching the respiratory tree – the air passages that conduct air between the lungs and the outside. The lining of the respiratory tree becomes injured, causing inflammation. This in turn irritates the nerves in the lining of the airway. Just a speck of dust can stimulate a cough. “But if this gets worse, it goes past just the lining of the airway and goes to the gas exchange units, which are at the end of the air passages. “If they become infected, they respond by pouring out inflammatory material into the air sacs that are at the bottom of our lungs.” If the air sacs then become inflamed, Wilson (2020) says this causes an “outpouring of inflammatory material [fluid and inflammatory cells] into the lungs and we end up with pneumonia.” the lungs that become filled with inflammatory material are unable to get enough oxygen to the bloodstream, reducing the body’s ability to take on oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide. Universities possesses the potential to become explosive, centrifugal outbreak centers due to their large young adult population, high levels of close social contact and permeable boundaries.
Families are central to education and are widely agreed to provide major inputs into a child’s learning, as described by Bjorklund and Salvanes (2011). The current global-scale expansion in home schooling might at first thought be seen quite positively, as likely to be effective. But typically, this role is seen as a complement to the input from school. Parents supplement a child’s maths learning by practising counting or highlighting simple maths problems in everyday life; or they illuminate history lessons with trips to important monuments or museums. Being the prime driver of learning, even in conjunction with online materials, is a different question; and while many parents round the world do successfully school their children at home, this seems unlikely to generalise over the whole population.
So while global home schooling will surely produce some inspirational moments, some angry moments, some fun moments and some frustrated moments, it seems very unlikely that it will on average replace the learning lost from school. But the bigger point is this: there will likely be substantial disparities between families in the extent to which they can help their children learn. Key differences include (Oreopoulos et al. 2006) the amount of time available to devote to teaching, the non-cognitive skills of the parents, resources (for example, not everyone will have the kit to access the best online material), and also the amount of knowledge – it’s hard to help your child learn something that you may not understand yourself. Consequently, this episode will lead to an increase in the inequality of human capital growth for the affected cohorts.
During a pandemic or disease outbreak, the proportion affected may exceed the seasonal norm of one-third of the student population (Nichol, D'Heilly, and Ehlinger. 2005). As sites of transmission, they may have a negative impact on the larger communities in which they are embedded. Additionally, student behavior is often divergent from non-student adult populations (Van et al., 2010). Hence, understanding of and outbreak management in such institutions are essential to minimize the impact of the novel corona virus in both the institution and its surroundings.
1.1. Statement of Problem
Viruses may be transmitted from person to person by the inhalation of droplets or aerosols containing virus particles and by direct/indirect contact with the virus. Although the complete details of factors that affect transmissibility of Corona Virus are not yet fully understood, close contact is a consistent finding associated with the transmission and spread of the virus and while the relative contributions of each of these routes of transmission are not known, droplet spread is considered to be the most important. Schools and colleges involve large numbers of students gathered together in small geographical areas for a period of time. Based on this understanding of how Corona virus is spread and the conditions that characterize mass gatherings, from first principles, these events would seem to provide a good opportunity for the rapid transmission of influenza to large numbers of people and its subsequent dissemination. By extension, it would seem plausible that banning or regulating such gatherings could reduce COVID transmission. University settings are unique given the permeability of their boundaries and the groups, and the activities within the institution that affect social contact between its members. Both of which have the potential to affect behaviors and perceptions. This survey was conducted to examine the understanding of, attitudes and Negative impact of the pandemic Covid 19 amongst students in Nigeria and their behavioral intentions during this pandemic. Universities are not immune to natural or manmade disasters, and past experience with these have illustrated the importance of continuity during and after these events. In a corona virus pandemic, institutions must maintain a balance between academic continuity, with infection control and minimizing morbidity. In contrast to pre-pandemic and early pandemic findings in Nigerian communities, most of the University population surveyed were not anxious about the Nigeria pandemic situation nor did they think it was serious. Younger respondents (aged 20-34) were most likely to believe they were not susceptible to pandemic Covid 19, being that the majority of the most hit are the elderly. The COVID-19 pandemic is first and foremost a health crisis. Many countries have (rightly) decided to close schools, colleges and universities. The crisis crystallizes the dilemma policymakers are facing between closing schools (reducing contact and saving lives) and keeping them open (allowing workers to work and maintaining the economy). The severe short-term disruption is felt by many families around the world: home schooling is not only a massive shock to parents’ productivity, but also to children’s social life and learning. Teaching is moving online, on an untested and unprecedented scale. Student assessments are also moving online, with a lot of trial and error and uncertainty for everyone. Many assessments have simply been cancelled. Importantly, these interruptions will not just be a short-term issue, but can also have long-term consequences for the affected cohorts and are likely to increase inequality. It is on this premise that the researcher has decided to examine the negative impact of the novel corona virus on students
The primary purpose of the review was to assess the negative impact of coronavirus pandemic on students in Nigeria
Other specific objectives include;
1. To identify whether student gatherings in schools facilitate transmission during a pandemic
2. To inform statements on the effectiveness of interventions that may be deployed to reduce spread of a new Corona virus at student gathering events during a pandemic.
3. To evaluate the impact of social distancing on reducing the spread of a new Corona virus in schools during a pandemic
1.4. Research Questions
1. How does student gatherings in schools facilitate transmission during a pandemic?
2. What is the effectiveness of interventions that may be deployed to reduce spread of a new Corona virus at students gathering during a pandemic?
3. What are the impacts of social distancing on reducing the spread of a new Corona virus in schools during a pandemic?
1.5.Scope of study
This study would be carried out on selected federal universities in Nigeria at large.
1.6.Significance of Study
This study will examine the impact of novel coronavirus (ncovid-19) on students in Nigeria. Recommendation that will promote sustainable development will be made based on the findings of this study. The findings in this study will be of immense importance in many ways.To the national policy makers in the global houses of parliament, necessary solutions mapped out would help the country and students to get back to their feet in the face of economic crisis.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Virus: A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea
Pandemic: A pandemic is a disease epidemic that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple continents, or worldwide. A widespread endemic disease with a stable number of infected people is not a pandemic. Further, flu pandemics generally exclude recurrences of seasonal flu.
Epidemic: An epidemic is the rapid spread of disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. For example, in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic
COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019
Polymerase Chain Reaction: Polymerase chain reaction is a medical test widely used in molecular biology to rapidly make millions to billions of copies of a specific DNA sample allowing scientists to take a very small sample of DNA and amplify it to a large enough amount to study in detail