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Several schools of thought have strived to put forth various explanations and theories as it relates to workers and their behaviours and relationship in their work place. These explanations have cut across various aspects ranging from motivation, productivity, rewards, expectation and job satisfaction. More often than not, employees are seen as disposable asset or tools that can be used to maximize the interest or profit of the employers, (Akinmayowa 1999), Under such a situation or relationship, the employees has no stake other than the compensatory benefit which in the Marxian perspective is always grossly inadequate (Barry, 1980).
With the emergence of such school of thought like the Human relations school, it is stressed that the employee’s place in the organization should not be seen as tools or instrument for wealth creation for the employers or the industrialist alone, rather it should be treated with utmost dignity because the employees are the most valuable assets of the organisation. Which ever belief is held by the various schools, there are typically two types of explanations made by Barry (1980) for the generally high level of job satisfaction or its absence in the organisation.
First is the dispositional, following the Durkheime explanation of social theory, second is the situational which follows the Marxist views based on work and its alienating tendencies.
Nevertheless, there is no singular explanation that can exhaustively or adequately explain the condition that guarantees employees satisfaction in the work environment, but a combination of factors, against this backdrop, this study seeks to examine the place of employees participation in the decision making in some organisation specifically the workers of Guinness Nigeria PLC and Bendel Brewery Benin City, Thus this study would among other things, find out what form of contribution in terms of advisory role apart from the daily routine of work schedule performed by the workers all this would be related to the level of satisfaction derivable from such activities against other forms of reward.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
The human in the economic sense, has generally been regarded as an economic man, this means that man or worker, as the case may be, only respond to economic incentives as a form of Motivation This assumption is popular among the classical economic schools of thought. They equate satisfaction only to economic values, such as monetary inducement as the only benefit that workers respond to. In otherwords, the only condition that may get a worker motivated or satisfied can only be measured in financial or monetary terms.
To ascertain if any association exists between schedule of duty and job satisfaction.
To ascertain how the work environment affect level of job satisfaction.
To determine if area of specialization and actual work doing have an effect on level of job satisfaction?
To observe if employee participation through acceptance of initiative or suggestion affects level of job satisfaction.
To ascertain the extent job security and stability determine the level of job satisfaction
To find out the level and extent environment in the office affects level of job satisfaction.
Several other theories or schools of thought like the motivational school led by Frederick Hertzberg, have proved the economic school of thought to be wrong or not very relevant, rather than considering man as being only economic rational man, these other theory have come to the realization that there are several other factors that make a worker more satisfied, rather than economic or monetary inducement alone. Satisfaction, self-esteem, as well as self actualization can only be possible by giving the employee or worker tasks that are challenging (Akinmayowa, 1999:108).
Most employers of labour have tend to rely heavily on the economic rationality assumption of workers. There are also evidence that, in most of such organisations, employers despite the seemingly huge economic incentives attached to their work still feel grossly dissatisfied or using the Marxian explanation or terminology “alienated” or what Blauner (1964) characterized as self estranging work. Self estranged workers according to Blauner, (1964) are dissatisfied only when they have developed needs for control, initiative and meaning in work. He explained further that the average manual worker and many white collar employers may be dissatisfied with fairly steady jobs which are largely instrumental and non-involving. Barry, (1980) explains further on Max’s explanation of alienation stressing that labour as being “external to the worker” violates the uniquely human capacity for self-realization through active participation in the creation of the social and material environment of human life. According to him, its consequences is an objective condition, alienation, consisting of a subordination of human creativity to subsistence needs and an associated attitudinal stance which treats conventionally established social arrangements as an immutable part of nature (Barry, 1980:252). Stating further he pointed out that Marx’s position clearly suggests that all humans need expressly rewarding work, that this need is a distinguishing characteristic of the species, and that attempts to compensate for non-rewarding productive experiences in family or leisure pursuits are ultimately futile because they violate fundamental human powers and capacities.
The above position or explanation clearly reveals the inadequacies inherent in the compensatory strategies of those that see man or the worker only in economic sense. In the light of the above this study is poised to providing answers to the following questions.
What constitute satisfaction of worker in an organisation?
Does an employee have any need for participation in decision making in the organisation?
Does employees participation have any correlation with job satisfaction?
Does the level of employees academic qualification, age, sex and religion influence his or her participation in the organization?
Answers shall be provided to the above questions in the course of this study.
1.3 Objective of Study
(i) To ascertain if any association exists between schedule of duty and job satisfaction.
(ii) To ascertain how the work environment affect level of job satisfaction.
(iii) To determine if area of specialization and actual work doing have an effect on level of job satisfaction?
(iv) To observe if employee participation through acceptance of initiative or suggestion affects level of job satisfaction.
(v) To ascertain the extent job security and stability determine the level of job satisfaction
(vi) To find out the level and extent environment in the office affects level of job satisfaction.
1.4 Significance /Rationale of Study
The findings of this study will shed more light on the aspect of labour relations, workers characteristics as well as satisfaction of workers within the framework of the organisation and to highlight some of the factors that brings about dissatisfaction.
As would be realized lack of progressive atmosphere for the use of initiative in the workplace may result in low level of performance. Thus, this work on completion could be used to explain the performance of workers when allowed to take part in decision making process of the organisation. It could be useful to general management, employers of labour and other researchers in designing job incentive plans for worker in order to increase their level of job satisfaction.
Furthermore, it could be useful in the resolution of industrial conflict, through collective bargaining, employee involved management and industrial democracy.
This study is relevant because it will generate data on employee participation and job satisfaction in a company that would be useful to the following;
i. The managers of the company,
ii. Human resources department,
iii. The industrial relations manager,
iv. Union members and leaders,
v. The staff of the company,
vi. Public at large.
1.5 Scope of Study
The study is centered on employee participation and job satisfaction in organisation using Guinness Nigeria PLC and Bendel Brewery staff as a case study.
The study is aimed at measuring the satisfaction of the employees against their level of participation in the organisation. In other terms, the study will focus attention on whether the employees take part in decision making process of the organisation and where in affirmative, if such invariably makes the employee have any sense of satisfaction.
The study does not intend to look at the management style of organization, neither does it intend to look at the organizational structure but rather the area of emphasis is limited in scope to that stated above.