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- BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Food poisoning otherwise known as food borne illness has been living with mankind since time immemorial which normally occurs when food contaminated with bacteria or other toxins (Ehrlich D. 2010) is consumed; its symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, stomach cramps e.t.c. According to the research carried out by (Ehrlich D. 2010) found out that the effect of food poisoning s tart to manifest between 4-36 hours after eating a contaminated food.
Food poisoning is a common and usually mild but sometimes deadly illness, a part from the symptoms out lined by Ehrlich, when contaminated food or drink is consumed it can lead to fever and chills bloody stools, dehydration and even nacreous breakdown, and these symptoms may affect one person or group of people which according to Ehrlich is called an “outbreak”
Cassava whose bacteria name is “Manihot esculenta or yucca or manioc” is a woody shrub of the euphorbiaceac family, a nature of South America it is tropical and sub-tropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrate. Nigeria is the world’s largest producer of cassava.
My main focus in this research work is to determine the causes and effect of food poisoning due to the consumption of improperly processed garri in Ego Local Government Area of Edo State. Nigeria garri is obtained by fermentation and subsequent frying; it can be fortified with legume like soya beans to offer a nutritionally rich meal.
Garri frying through a dehydrating process is not straight forward dry process it is not possible to produce garri from cassava pulp by just passing, heated air through it.
The product from such an operation could be dried cassava pulp or grancile and garri-garrification is simultaneous cooking and dehydrating operation. The product is first cooked with the mixture in it and dehydrates. The heat intensity during frying affects quality of the product. The moisture content of dewatered and sieved cassava mash in between 50 to 65% which has to be reduced to about 12% after frying operation in the dilled techniques the initial frying temperature is relatively low so as to avoid the formation of many lumps. As the moisture content reduces and most of the small lumps developed, have been broke n down by constant pressing and agitation, the heat is then increased in order to further cook and dehydrate the products. The colour and taste can be enhanced by adding a few drop of palm oil. At the end of the frying operation, the product is still hot and a little bit damp. It is then left to cool and dry, in a dry shade until the moisture content is reduced to 12% (Igbeka 1995).
The major factor that limits the use of cassava as food is the toxicity of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) which occurs as a result of the hydrolysis of cyanogenic glycoside (Richard 1985). According to him, the cyanide present in cassava may be considered to be of two types bound cyanide present as the cyanorganic glucoside and free cyanide present as the cyanogenic-glucoside and cyanide present as the cyanohydrins, that is free hydrogen cyanide which a gas above 26(under alkaline condition) add as cyanide ion, using improperly processed cassava can increase the cyanide content in the human body and eventually cause goiter cretimism, paralysis and neurological disorder(Delenge and Awuwalia 1983) as cited in Bradbury etal (1991). There is a great concern about the level of cyanide in many varieties of cassava products including garri there is equally good evidence that some fibre depleted diet cause pathetical affects as assumed by Umoh etal (1984) the effects are manifested not only in the gastro in-testinal tract but other anafomical structure such as the arteries lower limb and gall bladder.
- STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Consumption of cassava products generally garri in particular has always been a trend in Nigeria in west Africa and some other part of the world. The consumption of these products has been accompanied with some side effect like food poisoning and other related effects due to inefficiency in the process of production, which inevitably lead to improperly processed product(garri), and when this product is consumed, it will result to food poisoning and its effect has consumed the product, it is still a fact that , the amount of toxins in present in cassava notably cyanide if not properly processed during the production of garri (fermentation and consequently frying) can cause a lot of affect to human body and vis-a-visa food poisoning.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study is enumerated as follows:
- To determine causes food poisoning due to the consumption of improperly processed garri
- To determine the effects to food poisoning due to the consumption of improperly processed garri
- Enlightenment of the Nigeria population to avoids for poisoning as a consuming garri
- Evolving a heather Nigeria
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this research are as follows: This study is undertaken on the premise that, the consumers and producers of cassava product (garri) will be better enlightened about food poisoning inherent in the consumption of improperly processed garri
The study will stimulate decision maker in government to recognize the importance of considering the health of the citizen in terms of the food they consumed in order to reduce the number of patent at our hospitals both the government and the farmer would see the need of sending agric professional to educate those farmer on the production of garri (on the part of government and the farmer on the other hand would adhere to the teaching of the professional that has been sent by the government.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated
- Does consumption of improperly processed garri leads to food poisoning?
- Does low storage time lead to improperly processed garri?
- Does ignorance/illiteracy of the consumer result to cassava products (Garri) being improperly processed
- Does poor handling of cassava lead to its very improperly processed?
- Could contamination by micro organism make cassava to be improperly processed?
The following null hypothesis was formulated
HI: There is no significant relationship between food poisoning and improperly processed garri.
H2: There is no significant different between storage time and improperly processed garri.
H3: There is no significant relationship between ignorance of consumers and improperly processed garri
H4: There is no significant different between poor handling of cassava and improper processing.
H5: There is no significant different between contamination by micro-organism and improperly processed garri.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is basically a research determine the cause and effect of poisoning a to the consumption, of improperly processed garri. Ogede village in Egor local government area was used as a case study for this research. Respondent include farmers, traders, millers, student in the village.
- DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS
This study has concepts and terminologies which need to be defined and are:
- Cassava its botanical name is known as manihot esculentuta” or “yucca” or manioc” is a woody shrub of the euphorbinceac (spurge family) native of south America, extensively cultivated an animal crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates. Nigeria is the world’s largest producer of cassava
- Consumption; this is the means of using up some things example, food energy resource etc.
- Fermentation, in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohol sand carbon dioxide organic acids using yeasts, bacterial, or a more restricted definition of fermentation os the chemical conversion of sugar into ethanol. The science of fermentation is known as zymurgt.
- Food poisoning; this is common, usually mid; but some times deadly illness. Typical symptoms include nausea vomiting, abdominal cramping and diarrhea that occur suddenly (within 48 hours) after consuming a contaminated food or drinks.
- Garri; one stapes food products from cassava is obtained by fertmentation and subsequent frying
- Gratification; this is a simultaneous cooking and dehydrating operation.
- Hydrogen cyanide (H C N ) this is the major factors that limits the use of cassava as food because of us toxicity
- Improperly; this means not suited or appropriate to the situation or circumstance.
- Micro organism; are things one called organisms, virus fungi bacterial and are found everywhere. In the world they are found in all living things, plants and animals.
- Moistures; wetness, especially as droplets of condensed or absorbed liquid or in a vapor (Oncartadectionary 20009)
- Processing; to out a raw material, food etc through an industrial or a manufactory process in order to change it, preserved it.