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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.1 HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN NIGERIA
2.2 EFFECTS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING ON NIGERIA’S IMAGE
2.3 ANTI-TRAFFICKING EFFORTS IN NIGERIA
2.4 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SITUATION OF NIGERIAN VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 STUDY POPULATION
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.5 DATA FOR THE STUDY: INSTRUMENTATION
3.5.2 VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT
3.6 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS (QUESTIONNAIRE)
SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The history of human trafficking, including that of the trafficking of women, cannot be completely divorced from the phenomenon of slavery. This is because both involve the acquisition and transportation of humans across local, national and international borders for servitude, with or without the consent of the trafficked person(s). Slavery, according to Oshadare (2004), is the social sanction of involuntary servitude imposed by one person or group upon another. He explains that slavery, as a phenomenon, made its appearance when pristine tribes reached the pastoral (as distinct from the hunting and gathering) stage of development. Slavery then was modest with regards to the number of slaves, because the care of flocks required only a few hands.
By 1960, when Nigeria secured her independence from Britain, slavery as a social institution or socio-cultural practice had virtually ceased to exist. Indeed, it became illegal and vexatious even to raise the issue in reference to an individual or group.
In 1980s, however, when Nigeria’s economy witnessed serious decline as a result of oil glut, the country began to experience mass poverty manifested by increasing unemployment, soaring prices of essential goods and low wages. Consequently, there was widespread misery and frustration among the populace especially the large number of unemployed youths who began to believe that their prospect of economic survival lay outside the shores of the country. This encouraged many youths to begin to emigrate from Nigeria in large number and, in most cases, to Europe, Asia and America.
The mass exodus of youths from Nigeria and, indeed, other Sub-Saharan African and Asian countries to the economically advanced nations of Europe and America encouraged the emergence of syndicates who devised methods for enticing would-be trafficked persons. In the case of Nigeria specifically, the syndicates developed very strong and dependable network for effective organization, recruitment and movement of would-be trafficked persons from their local communities to North Africa across the perilous Sahara Desert. Most Nigerian victims of human trafficking pass through Niger, Mali, Tunisia, Morocco or Libya en route to Europe (Ojugbana, 2015:28).
By 1990s the large number of emigrants (victims of human trafficking from Nigeria and other African countries and Asia) roaming the streets of some European countries were considerable. Nigeria was listed among the African countries with the highest number of women trafficked to Europe for commercial sex business. According to Otti (2011:16), about 50,000 Nigerian women were trafficked to Europe every year for prostitution. He stated that trafficking of women and children across local boarders in Africa has been on increase despite counter-measures by government agencies and anti-trafficking organizations.
The economic marginalization hypothesis positions that the economic disadvantage of women, such as low level of educational opportunity, high levels of unemployment and poverty predisposes them to involvement in human trafficking and other (Heimer, Wittrock, 2005 & Unal, Hunnicutt & Broidy, 2004).
However, with the efforts of governments in both developed and developing nations, victims of human trafficking especially women are either set free by law enforcement agents or manage to escape. But, they mostly live under the effects of psychological and physical trauma they have faced or witnessed. The gory conditions they were exposed to stem from inhumane living conditions, poor sanitation, lack of sexual protection, physical and emotional attacks, occupational hazards and lack of preventative healthcare (USAID, 2005). They were prone to common health issues such as HIV/AIDS, pelvic pain, UTI, pregnancy, infertility, infection or mutilations, malnourishment and infectious diseases. Most of these victims were prone to abuse substances either from being led to it by their traffickers or by turning to substance abuse as a coping mechanism to help cope or escape their desperate situations. The common types of psychological trauma faced by these victims includes, depression, stress related disorders, disorientation, phobias and panic attacks.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been focus of nearly all studies related to psychological and mental health needs of victims of trafficking (Zimmerman et al. 2003). However, to bring back the confidence and faith of the victims that they have lost, well maintained rehabilitation centers are necessary. Edwards and McGorry, (2002) recognise the importance of providing holistic care continuously and assertively during the critical years after the stressful events. The programme of rehabilitating victims of human trafficking is a process designed to enable them to reach and maintain their optimal physical, emotional, social, and spiritual functional levels (Mental Health Commission, 1998). It also aims at helping these individuals achieve the highest level of independence and quality of life possible (Harper, 2001).
However, as lofty as these objectives are, they are rarely achieved. The rehabilitation of victims of human trafficking and child labour in Nigeria has been the joint efforts of both government agencies and non-governmental organisations. Some of them include; Women Trafficking and
Child Labour Eradication Foundation (WOTCLEF) and National Agency for Prohibition of Traffic in Persons and Other Related Matters (NAPTIP). For example, the Counselling and
Rehabilitation department of NAPTIP is empowered to develop and implement programmes and policies that will enhance a smooth rehabilitation and reintegration of victims into self-sustaining and productive members of the society. Some of the rehabilitation and residential house for victims of trafficking in Nigeria has variety of facilities for the victims where they feel as comfortable as home. These houses provide the victims with shelter and three times meals. Some of them run comprehensive rehabilitation programmes which included vocational training as well as provision of equipment and start-off grants to facilitate reintegration (WOTCLEF, 2009). They provide psycho-social care and legal assistance to the victims which Johnson, (2007) regarded as most important. The centers provide services in the area of formal and informal education which include human rights awareness and vocational skill building training to make the beneficiaries economically empower. The reunification and reintegration of victims to the society and followup are part of the programmes that are very essential. However, some of these rehabilitation homes engage in recreational activities to keep beneficiaries entertained and busy. This may assist in healing the wound faster. These activities should help them forget their pain and misery and to think of new life again. The combination of the TIP Report which highlights the "three P’s"— prosecution, protection, and prevention and the victim-centered approach to trafficking that suggested the "three R’s" - rescue, rehabilitation, and reintegration should be employed.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is a need however to evaluate the services being provided by these homes from the beneficiaries’ perspectives. Victim satisfaction is thought by some to be the ultimate outcome of the delivery of rehabilitation services. Victim satisfaction is a critical component of quality service because it provides information on the provider’s success at meeting those victims’ expectations in matters on which the victims are the ultimate authority. Satisfaction equally quickens recovery. Recovery is described by Anthony, (1993) as a “deeply personal, unique process of changing one’s attitudes, values, feelings, goals, skills, and/or roles. It is a way of living a satisfying, hopeful, and contributing life.
Some of the factors that affects the effectiveness of rehabilitation of victims of human trafficking are inadequate facilities, lack of support from governments and non-governmental organizations, lack of professionals in rehabilitation centers, lack of proper awareness of victims on the relevance of rehabilitation centers, etc. these problems make it glaring that there is a need to carry out a study on the Perceived satisfaction and effectiveness of rehabilitation of victims of human trafficking in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to examine the Perceived satisfaction and effectiveness of rehabilitation of victims of human trafficking in Nigeria. The specific objectives of this study include the following:
1. To ascertain the awareness of victims of human trafficking on the relevance of rehabilitation.
2. To find out the types of intervention victims of human trafficking are exposed to in rehabilitation home.