Project description

  • PROJECT TITLE: PARENTING STYLES AND PEER PRESSURE AS A PREDICTORS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
  • DEPARTMENT: PHILOSOPHY
  • PRICE: 3000 | CHAPTERS: 5 | PAGES: 60 | FORMAT: Microsoft Word | | PROJECT DELIVERY: 24hrs Delivery »

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION        

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY     

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.7     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.8     DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.9     DEFINITION OF TERMS     

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     CONCEPT OF PARANTING STYLE

2.2     CONCEPT OF PEER PRESSURE

2.3     CONCEPT OF SUBSTANCE USE/DRUG ABUSE

2.4     NATURE OF SUBSTANCE USE

2.5     CONSEQUENCES OF SUBSTANCE USE

2.6     CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS AND COMMONLY ABUSED DRUGS AMONG STUDENTS

2.7     DETERMINANTS OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG STUDENTS

2.8     INTERVENTION STRATEGIES FOR CURBING DRUG AMONG STUDENTS

2.9     IMPLICATION FOR HEALTH PROMOTION ON DRUG ABUSE

2.10   THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     RESEARCH DESIGN

3.2     AREA OF STUDY

3.3     POPULATION OF THE STUDY

3.4     RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.5     INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

3.6     VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT

3.7     METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

3.8     METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1     SUMMARY

5.2     CONCLUSION

5.3     RECOMMENDATIONS

REFRENCE

APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

Substance use has been a source of persistent concern for parents, educators, and lawmakers given that it has been generally linked to poor adult outcomes (Odgers et al., 2008). Despite the recent decline in the proportion of students reporting use of certain licit and illicit substances, substance use among the youth still remains relatively pervasive (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2007). According to the recent national survey of youths, Monitoring the Future (2008), use of some illicit drugs such as crystal methamphetamine, crack, and cocaine has gradually declined in the past ten years (Johnston, O’Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2009). However, use of other illicit drugs (e.g., LSD, ecstasy, sedatives, codeine, and heroin) has shown little change over the years. When lifetime prevalence rates were considered in the Monitoring the Future study, high school students are reported having used any kind of illicit drugs same with college students (Johnston et al., 2009). Some researchers have suggested that the widespread use of illicit substances among the youths reflects a normative behavior (Newcomb & Bentler, 1988).

At the different level, substance abuse has been implicated in many forms human morbidity and mortality, and is a leading cause of preventable deaths in many countries of the world (3, 4). Substance abuse is a major cause of physical conditions such as liver, cardiovascular, and cranial problems. Other problems include some degree of tolerance and withdrawal syndrome, characterized by nervousness, irritability, drowsiness, energy loss, difficulty concentrating, impaired physical performance, headaches, fatigues, irregular bowels, insomnia, dizziness, cramps, palpitation, tremors, seating and cravings (5 - 7). Additionally, substance abuse has been implicated in majority of the cases of vehicular fatalities worldwide, with attendant effects of physical deformity, loss of property, loss of jobs, loss of esteem and even loss of lives. In addition, substance misuse is known have a causal relationship with many psychological disorders including mental and behavioral disorders. Substance abuse is a leading cause of violence among individuals is a major cause of premature deaths (3, 8, 9). Apart from the various effects of substance abuse for the general population, its negative impacts for the youths (especially students) are far-reaching. Students who abuse drugs persistently face an array of possible consequences raging from lowered commitment to education, declining grades, increased potential for dropout and high truancy rate (3-5, 8). Suicides, homicides, and accidental injuries have all been linked to substance abuse among students (3, 8). Other researchers have found a high prevalence of depression, development lag, apathy and withdrawal among substance-abusing students (10), coupled with the fact that siblings and parents are affected profoundly by undergraduate involvement in substance abuse as this may drain family financial and emotional resources (1 0).

One factor that researchers have figured as playing a key role in student’s substance abuse but which has not received adequate research attention in Nigeria is parenting styles. Parenting style is a complex activity that includes much specific behavior that works individually and together to influence child's life form. Parenting style captures two important elements of parenting: parental responsiveness and parental demandingness (11). Parenting responsiveness (also referred to as parental warmth or supportiveness) refers to the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive, and acquiescent to children's special needs and demands (12). Parental demandingness (also referred to as behavioral control) refers to the claims parents make on children to become integrated into the family as a whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the child who disobeys (12). However when parental responsiveness and parental demandingness is crossed, it yields three parenting styles may drain family financial and emotional resources (1 0).

Other researchers have also consistently placed the explanation of many forms of negative behavior among youths in the social domain, especially on the influence of peer groups. For instance, (13) found that the main reasons that majority of their sample of college students cited for substance abuse, especially excessive drinking, was peer pressure (13). The influence of the peer group becomes particularly pervasive for the youth from a weak family setting, such as from permissive parents. The university system, which epitomizes independence and freedom (hitherto mismanaged, restricted, or unavailable for many youths) therefore provides a veritable environment for peer influence to wax strong on individuals. In such a situation, peer influence could play a big role in students' substance abuse.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

One of the most delicate phase is the adolescent period and in many cases at this stage the initiating of drug abuse may occur. Adolescents may abuse substances due to various reasons such as lack of adequate knowledge about the harmful effects of the substances, presenting personal independence, peer pressure, satisfying the curiosity, low levels of self-confidence, inability in maintaining inter-personal communications, and reducing stress and the parenting style of the parent. Among other dependents, the presence of substance abuser in the family most especially the father are major factors of substance abuse. Most students either secondary or university and adult today that abuse drugs mostly started from the adolescent period. The health educator has no doubt that drug and alcohol abuse among university students have become a matter of concern to Nigerians. These substances not only alter the functioning of the body and mind but also affect the dimension of health. However, Encomium magazine, (2013) stated that the use of illicit drugs is not a new trend, rather it is growing at an alarming rate with more “leaders of tomorrow” embracing drug abuse for varying reasons. Today, drug addiction is one of the vexing and pervasive problems that almost all the countries have faced in the world including Nigeria. NAFDAC, (2008) reported that the abuse of illicit drugs is forming a student sub-culture in Nigeria. The consequence of such addiction, abuse, trafficking or even cultivation can be devastating; unfortunately the youths are the most vulnerable on hard drugs and this brings a lot of adverse effects on the community (Ajibulu, 2014). This research therefore, would be focusing on the influence of parenting styles and peer pressure among university students in Nigeria

1.3     Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to find out the influence of parenting styles and peer pressure among university students. Specifically the study intends to;

1.     Find out the influence of parenting style on substance abuse university students

2.     Examine the influence of peer pressure on substance abuse

3.     Analyze the effect of substance abuse on academic performance of university students

4.     Proffer solution to the problem of substance use among university students

1.4     Research Question

1.     What is the influence of parenting style on substance abuse university students

2.     Examine the influence of peer pressure on substance abuse

3.     Analyze the effect of substance abuse on academic performance of university students

1.5     Research Hypothesis

Ho: there is no significant influence of parenting styles and peer pressure on student’s substance abuse

Hi: there is no significant influence of parenting styles and peer pressure on student’s substance abuse

1.6     Significance of the Study

This research work will expose the parents to the role the unintentionally play in the life of their children most especially when it comes to drug or substance abuse, this research will also serve as an eye opener to the influence of peer pressure on drug abuse among university students.

The government at various level through this research will be able to come up with different policy that will curb the use of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria. Finally this research will also serve as a reference points and guide fo


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