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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.3 EMPIRICAL REVIEW
2.4 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 AREA OF STUDY
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.4 RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.6 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1 SUMMARY
1.1 Background to the Study
Adolescents' mental well-being is very crucial as it plays significant roles in adulthood. In understanding the concept of adolescents' mental well-being, Korkeila (2000) conceptualized two dimensions of mental well-being: the positive (well-being and coping in the face of adversities), and the negative (symptoms and disorders). Positive mental wellbeing is therefore not merely an absence of negative symptoms such as depression or anxiety, but also includes aspects of control of self and events, happiness, social involvement, self-esteem and sociability. Adolescents who are mentally healthy have the ability to: develop psychologically, emotionally, creatively, intellectually, spiritu ally and initiative. Healthy adolescents also have the ability to develop and sustain mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships, use and enjoy solitude, become aware of others and empathize with them, play and learn. Also, adolescents who are mentally healthy have the ability to develop a sense of right and wrong, resolve problems and setbacks and learn from them (Korkeila, 2000). Mental well-being is fundamental to enhanced quality of life. Happy an d confident adolescents are most likely to grow into happy and confident adults, who in turn contribute to the health and well-bein g of nations (Bentley & Li, 1995). Mental well-being in adolescents has implications for self-esteem, behavior, attendance at school, educational achievement, social cohesion and future health and life chances. Adolescents with a good sense of mental well-being possess problem-solving skills, social competence and a sense of purpose. These assets help them rebound from setbacks, thrive in the face of poor circumstances, avoid risk-taking behavior and generally continue a productive life (Bernat, & Resnick, 2006). According to problem behaviour theory (Jessor, 1977), problem behavior consists of three independent but related systems of psychosocial components. The personality system includes social cognitions, individual values, expectations, beliefs, and attitudes. The perceived environmental system consists of proximal and distal social influence factors such as family and peer orientation and expectations regarding problem behaviors. The third component, the behavior system, consists of problem and conventional behavioral structures that work in opposition to one another. Jessor and colleagues postulate that these problem behaviors stem from an individual's affirmation of independence from parents and societal influence. In contrast, conventional behavior structures consist of behaviors oriented toward society's traditional Standards of appropriate conduct such as church attendance and high academic performance.
There are myriad of factors that can influence adolescents' mental well-being. One of such factors is the interactive style of parent and child (parental bonding). Parenting bonding is a warm, intimate and continuous relationship between parents and child in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment. It can also be seen as affectional or tie between parents and their children. This affectional bond is based on a child's needs for safety, security and protection, paramount in infancy and childhood. Separation of a child from the parent can prevent the development of bonding resulting in psychopathology at some point in adolescents' life (Bowlby, 1958). Parent-child relationships can also be seen as the process in which a child goes through in developing lasting emotional ties with its immediate caregivers, which is seen as the first and most significant developmental task of a human being, and is central to that person's ability to relate properly to others throughout its life. This suggests that parents need to develop strong relationships with their young children and remain actively and positively involved in the lives of their adolescent children in order to help him/her develop a stable mental well-being (Brown & Ryan, 2003). It is obvious that disturbances in parental bonding will be linked with the development of mental disorders later in life.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Bullying is a common problem that is gradually increasing in every part of the society and in schools and that has negative impact especially on t of the schools and on the students. It has been observed that the incidents of bullying commonly experienced today tend to involve a gradual increase of violence and even some fatalities, (Batsche & Knoff, 1994). A study of 4,236 middle school students in Maryland found that, 30.9 percent of the students reported being victimized three or more times over the past year (Haynie, Nansel & Eitel, 2001). A further 7.4 percent reported having bullied others three or more times over that past year. More than half of those who reported bullying others also reported having been victims of bullying. Simanton, Burthwick and Hoover's (2000) study of bullying in small town and found that nearly one in three students experienced some degree of peer victimization and that one in five participated in bullying of peers. Smith and Shu (2000) carried out research targeting years 6 to 10 (10-to-14-year-olds) in 19 English schools, and found that, overall, 55.5 percent of pupils stated they had not been bullied, with 32.3 percent having been bullied once or twice, 4.3 percent two or three times a month, 3.8 percent once a week, and 4.1 percent several times a week.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to find out the influence of parental bonding and peer bullying on adolescent mental well-being, specifically the study intends to:
1. Find out the influence of parental bonding on the mental well-being of adolescents
2. Examine the effects of peer bullying on adolescent mental well being
3. Analyze the effects of parental bonding and mental well-being of adolescent
1.4 Research Question
1. What it is influence of parental bonding on the mental well-being of adolescents?
2. What is the effects of peer bullying on adolescent mental well-being?
3. Is there any effects of parental bonding and mental well-being of adolescent?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no effects of parental bonding and mental well-being of adolescent
Hi: there is effects of parental bonding and mental well-being of adolescent
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.
1.9 Definition of Terms