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1.1 Background to the Study
A child is referred to a minor in the law village and a person that has not attained the age of 18.For decades the Nigeria child has been seen an instrument or property with no privilege of theirs (Umobong, 2010).This myth of seeing a child as a property and instrument have caused a global problem called “CHILD ABUSE”.
Child Abuse can also be referred to as child maltreatment. Child maltreatment can be defined ill-treatment of a child by his family or guardian.it is the abuse of a child instantly or continuously within a period (Abamara, 2016). Child abuse can be in omission and commission. According to African network for prevention and protection against child maltreatment: it can be defined as the combination of child omission and commission by an able adult endearing the child go through physical pain and emotional imbalances. Abamara (2016) defined child maltreatment as purposeful, unintended and well-intentional action which will inflict physical injuries, health injuries, and emotional injuries on the child. This can also be defined as the exploitation of a child health which stunts the development and dignity of the child (WHO, 2013). Child maltreatment can also be subdivided into the following forms;
Neglect and neglect treatment
Emotional abuse and
Exploitation (Uzodimma, Ogundeyi, Dedeke and Owolabi, 2013).
However, commission phenomenon of child maltreatment details the act that are developed and organized to inflict harm indirectly or directly on a young child. Omission which has to with total absence to the necessity of life which the child is required to have (Abamara, 2016). This absence will affect the welfare and physical development of the child. The holistic view of child maltreatment deal emotional abuse, sexual abuse and neglect that affect the god-give and constitutional-guaranteed freedom of the child. This being perpetrated by the wards or guardians close to the child.
Child Abuse is a continental problem. Child abuse is grave in Nigeria but have been reported in few, this which have led to different range of work activities such as domestic service hawking and child trafficking (Uzodimma et al, 2012). This which have brought broad adverse consequence on the children and the nation at large. The effect of this on the development have not been seen has a matter of concern (Owolabi, 2012). The underdevelopment in the technology, industrial, managerial and political know-how which aid to pull resources to induce stable economy, which will provide basic needs of life on the population have been in a stifling position. The level of poverty and bad living condition have been at the increasing rate which has affected the well-being of the child in a home. The Nigerian child is exposed to social factor, unfavorable economic condition, religious doctrines, and income gap problems that contribute to happenings of child abuse that they suffer (Nicola, Elizabeth, Nicholas and Banke, 2012). Mostly, in his part of the world the female gender are trafficked into domestic agriculture, mining, petty crime and drug commercials.(Nicola et al, 2012) depicted that the main and largest cause of child maltreatment is poverty, and some other relational factors like religion, and socio-cultural values in the society. To a large extent the Nigerian economy has shifted a child in to fosterage.
The early development of a child in the early stage of life is widely seen as the most important period of the child’s life which must not be abused in any manner, because this is the period when the child will mold his or her cognitive, language, perceptual, socio-emotional and motor development which he or she will need for achieving a goal in the social and physical environment he finds himself. This inform the reason why they need to be protected from any model of abuse at the early and continuous development period of their lives (Oduolowu & Olowe, 2011). The early years of children are the years that they are must vulnerable to attacks from different perpetrators of child abuse, which intends reason why they must be guarded and cared for accurately. The Childhood Education is an important components for the development of the child (Oluwe, Ketulu & Majebi, 2014). Based on this premises the study will investigate the effect of child right abuse and development of children in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Child abuse is physical and emotional ill-treatment that result in actual and potential harm to the child’s health.it injures the development and dignity of the child. Child abuse are common in Nigeria, but are scarcely reported (Uzodimma et al, 2012).
The neglect of child abuse causes a cancer in the environment, socio-political surroundings. The Nigerian children has an equal right like any other child. This right must not be trampled upon. It was wildfire that have run across the country.
Children are exposed to street/highway hawking, exploitative labor, girl-child marriage, illiteracy and female genital mutilation. The Federal Government of Nigeria enact the Child Right Act 2003 to curtail the child abuse menace in Nigeria and give a child a place in the country (Onwe, 2104)
The campaign against child abuse did not yield a convincing outcome despite the effort child Act and NGO’S, it was enough to save the needy (Nigerian child). The child maltreatment in Nigeria continue to change figure and shape on a daily basis. The incident of sexual abuse, kid-napping and hawking created a pain to the children (Onwe, 2014).
From the types of child abuse to the implication of child abuse down to the policies of child abuse the literature has shown an inconclusive niche in the relationship between child right abuse and development of children in Nigeria.
This study will fill the gap by investigating the effect of child right abuse and development of children in Surulere local government area in Lagos State.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between child right abuse and development of children in Nigeria. The specific objective of the study are to:
1. Examine the effect of poor income gap of parent on development of children.
2. Examine the extent which values and norms has taken on the development of children
3. Determine how domestic violence affect development of children
4. Investigate how of poor health care for children influences the development of children.
1.4 Research Question
1. What is the effect of poor income gap of parent on the development of children?
2. To what extent has value and norms taken on the development of children?
3. What extent does domestic violence affect development of children
4. What has poor health care for children influenced the development of children?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H0= Poor income gap of parent has no significant effect on development of children
H1=Value and Norms has no significant effect on the development of children
H2=Poor health care has no significant effect on the development of children
1.6 Significance of the Study
This finding of this study will be beneficial to the following stakeholder which include; Health care professional. Policy Enactors and Child Right groups.
The Health Care professional will be able to inform the guardians and parent of children the major cause and types of abuse, so has aid them not to pass across the knowledge the parents and wards.
The policy enactors will from this finding of this know the exact place to swing the pendulum concerning policy formulation which has to do with child maltreatment and prevention.
The child right group will from the finding of this study have proper awareness on the forms and current forms of child abuse in the global world.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will carried out in Surelere and Apapa Local government Area of Lagos State. The study will be carried out with the period of the child abuse era inflicted on the chibouk girls and cases of maltreatment that have occurred with 2013 to 2017.The study will uniquely focus on the relationship and if adverse effect of child abuse have stunted the development of children in Nigeria.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The study will face some difficulties in terms of getting ethical clearance from the ethical department in the school and getting the accurate information from the children which preserve the study from giving wrong justification based on the findings and recommendation that will be made later in the study if the collected data does not have good validity.
1.9 Operational definition of Terms
Child; this is an infant between the age 9-17.
Child Abuse; this indumenta of violence of child physically and emotionally.
Development; this is the overall growth in the physical and societal well-being of a child.