Need Urgent help with this project?
The study investigated the generation of the solid waste in Achara layout and the effects of INTERNET WORK ENGINEERING LTD (a private sector participant (PSP) engaged by ENSEPA, Enugu in solid waste collection, transportation and disposal for Achara layout area of Enugu city. In the course of the study, 100 households in the layout were randomly chosen from the 10 streets that fall within the randomly sampled blocks when the layout was divided into 100 blocks, and the solid waste generated by these households was stored into components, and weighed with a weigh balance graduated in kilogram (kg). Also, questionnaire surveys were carried out for the households’ studied and informal interview for the enterprise (PSP) that manages the waste was conducted. Using correlation analysis, the study established that there is a strong positive correlation ( = 0.99, p< 0.05) between quantity of solid waste generated and household size. A high coefficient of determination (98%) explained the extent to which household size determines the quantity of solid waste generated. ANOVA revealed that there is no significant difference in mean solid waste generated by the households between the streets studied. The solid waste composition analysis revealed that about 70% of the solid waste is composed of food waste/foliage which are decomposable. The responses on the questionnaire surveys established that the activities of the PSP involved with the solid waste collection of the layout are ineffective. Though the involvement of PSP is a welcome approach in the solid waste management of Enugu City, it is still rudimentary in developing economies like Nigeria. There is need for a more pragmatic approach in terms of public awareness and sensitization; evaluation; monitoring; and enforcement.
Cities historically have been centers of industry, commerce and magnets for millions of people. As Cities grow ever larger, they consume more and more natural resources to meet the rising demand for food, water, energy, goods and services, both from people and industry. These have made cities to have a huge impact on the natural environment. One of the most evident is the proliferation of solid wastes. Government is concerned about the increasing costs of managing these solid wastes and maintaining the quality of the environment.
Solid waste has been defined by tchobanoglous et al (1977), as all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid and that are discarded as useless or unwanted. Okonkwo and Eboatu (1999) classified solid waste according to source.
i. Domestic or Residential waste generated from household
preparations such as cooking and serving of food.
ii. Municipal (both residential and commercial) waste generated from households, offices, hotels, markets, hospitals and schools such as cardboard, plastics, glass, paper etc.
iii. Industrial waste generated from construction, tanneries, fabrication, breweries, etc such as metal scraps, hop residues etc. iv. Agricultural waste emanating from the farm activities such as slaughter house residues, paddy husks, cassava stalks, corn residues, millet residues etc.
v. Hazardous waste from nuclear power plants, laboratories, hospitals, pharmaceuticals, etc such as heavy metals, hypodermic needles, bandages, out dated drugs etc.
For the purposes of this study, residential solid waste is chosen. These wastes can be categorized into two:
i. Decomposable such as food wastes – animal, fruit, or vegetable
residues. ii. Non-decomposable such as tin cans, glass, aluminum cans, plastics,
Cities of most developing economies need to take steps to solve this increasing menace of solid wastes. This can be achieved through a sustainable solid waste management programme. Solid waste management has been defined by Tchobanoglous et al (1977) as that discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics and other environmental considerations, that is also responsible to public
Achara layout area grew more rapidly in residence than some other areas of Southern part of Enugu City. The buildings are mostly block of flats. The elevated, open-sided dumps built in a number of locations in this area have been demolished and replaced with large bins and skips by Enugu State Environmental Protection Agency (ENSEPA) at
strategic locations in the area. This brought about frequent overflowing of dumps unto the streets due to irregular evacuation from dumpsites to landfills. These large bins and skips soon disappeared, hence many
“illegal” dumpsites developed along the street in the Layout.
In an attempt to solve the intractable problem of solid waste in Enugu
City, ENSEPA recently involved INTERNET WORK ENGINEERING
LTD under their Private Sector Participants (PSP) in solid waste management. They are to assist the agency in solid waste collection, transportation and disposal in Achara Layout Area. The operation of this PSP in Achara layout area involves the use of open tippers. Their mode of operation involves the ringing of a bell as a signal to the residents to come and throw in their wastes. This continues as the tipper moves from street to street to collect the solid waste generated. There is no definite time and day for their operation from observations. Thus, residents dump their solid wastes along the streets of Achara layout. These have presented an unwholesome environment that is
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY PROBLEM
Cities have a huge impact on the natural environment. As cities grow larger, they consume more food, water, energy and goods and services both from people and industry. So as cities continue to attract more people and produce and consume more, more wastes are generated. How to manage these wastes have called for social revolution by individuals, corporate bodies, social organizations, clubs and governments and so on.
The World Environment Day, 5th June each year, declared by the United Nations General Assembly at a meeting in Stockholm, in 1972 was meant to be observed by all Nations. This world body recognized the fundamental right of man to live in an environment worthy of his dignity and well-being.
The UN Environmental Day celebration therefore was aimed at creating awareness in the peoples of the world of all races, the need for clean, healthy, comfortable and a safe environment.
In developing economies, alarmed by massive population growth, worsening living conditions, inadequate provision of utilities and infrastructures and general environmental degradation, there is worry that cities have become unmanageable. In Nigerian cities, governments have adopted many approaches to solid waste management, but still face unprecedented challenges. People are more optimistic, observing that with good management of these wastes, cities can grow even larger without ruining their surroundings and making residents worse-off.
1.2 STUDY PROBLEM
Achara Layout is fast losing its aesthetic beauty. There are no designated dumpsites. To dispose refuse, residents have to go for some distance to a disposal-point (where there is any). This is not only inconvenient to residents but also costly, thus they dump the waste any where found convenient within the neighbourhood; mostly along the streets. In any event of rainfall, the residents of
Achara layout dump their refuse in the gutters of the streets. These gutters are blocked with solid waste. After each event of torrential rainfall, most of these wastes litter the roads causing accidents and traffic hold ups. The stench from the putrescible part of the wastes pervades the whole area. These call for investigation into the solid waste management system applied in
1.3 AIM OF THE STUDY
The ultimate aim of this study is to investigate the activities of PSP engaged by ENSEPA in solid waste collection, transportation and disposal in Achara Layout with a view of finding out why they have not made any appreciable success with regard to managing solid waste in the area; and to make a sound proposal for better and more effective PSP operation of solid waste collection, transportation and ultimate disposal in Achara layout area of Enugu city. To achieve this aim, the following objectives are formulated.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
i. To find out the percentage composition of solid waste generated by the household in the study location.
ii. To find out the quality of slid waste generated by the households in the study location.
iii. To investigate the regularity of PSP in solid waste collection of the study location.
iv. To create awareness that effective solid waste management of the study location can only be achieved through the incorporation of both residents and the PSP concerned.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The objectives of this study prompted the researcher to ask the following research questions:
i. What is the composition of the solid waste generated?
ii. What is the total quantity of the solid waste generated per household for a given period? iii. Is there any relationship between the quantity of solid waste generated and household size?
iv. Is there any significant difference in solid waste generated between the ten (10) streets studied in the study location?
v. What mode of operation do the PSP use in collecting solid waste at the study location?
vi. What is the operational period of the PSP in solid waste collection at the study location using this mode of operation? vii. How effective is it?
viii. Should PSP be involved in solid wastes management? These research questions are addressed by formulating these research hypotheses:
i. That there is a significant relationship between quantity of solid waste generated and household size in the study
ii. That there is no significant difference in the main solid waste generated by households between the studied streets in the study location.
iii. That the activities of PSP involved in the solid waste collection, transportation and disposal are ineffective.
1.6 CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK OF THE STUDY
The issue of solid waste management is a complex phenomenon. It has been an intractable environmental problem for which wide scale studies have provided no answers. For effective study of solid waste management, it is necessary that the individual components of the phenomenon be properly identified; in this case they include solid waste generation, solid waste transportation and solid waste disposal (Tchobanoglous, 1977). These components are interrelated and they also have their distinctive attributes. For instance in the case of solid waste, type of solid waste generated e.g. commercial solid waste, residential solid waste, and so on; the income level of those generating the waste and so on. For a comprehensive study of solid waste management, the system approach concept is applied. The management of solid waste could be approached through viewing the entire components of the solid waste equation as a system that is interrelated or interdependent. In other words, waste disposal is dependent on waste transported, while waste transferred is dependent on the waste generated at generationpoints, which may be household wastes, commercial wastes and so on.
Wang and Pereira (1980) suggested that the key in planning a solid waste collection system is the ability to ask the right questions. What to collect?, Who will collect it?, Where to collect from?, What vehicles should be used to transport waste?, How often should waste be transported from generation – points?, dumpsites are needed and where should these be located?, What routing, crew size and schedule should be employed?, how many incinerators, landfills, or other types of disposal sites are needed and where should they be located?. The question of what geographic area to cover is usually determined on the basis of existing political jurisdictions. Answers to these questions are necessary for a holistic management of solid waste in the area. Hence, output analysis is performed by examining or measuring the solid waste generated in the Layout by actually separating and weighing the components of solid waste samples collected. This is likely to give a micro scale data, which properly depicts the composition of the solid waste of the Layout so as to have better planning of solid waste collection system for Achara Layout.
1.7 THE STUDY AREA
Enugu city is located at the North-Eastern fringes of South Eastern Nigeria and occupies an area of about 12,000km2. It has previously served as capital city for the Eastern Region, East Central State, the Former Anambra State and presently Enugu State (Fig 1). The topography is undulating with folded hills dotting around it (Iloeje, 1977) hence the acronym-“Enu Ugwu”, meaning the top of a hill. It enjoys a tropical climate characterized by two distinct seasons - rainy and dry.
The town owes its origin and early a coal mining. Between 1915 and 1920, the city developed as a by-product of coal mining activities hence the nickname “Coal City”. The coal mining activities led to the early development of Ogbete layout, Coal Camp which is one of the oldest planned residential areas built for miners. In 1923, China Town developed as a special industrial area for Africa Railway Workers and the European Reservation Area now called Government Reservation Area (GRA).
As Enugu grows in commerce and industry, attracted earlier by coal mining activities so does it population with the attendant solid waste problems. This population growth is evident from the various population
Census figures from 1952 to 1991 from 62, 764 to 465, 072 respectively (National Population Commission, 1994). With this inevitable development, other residential areas started to emerge. These are from Abakpa Nike towards Ugwuogo Nike at the North East side, from New Haven towards Thinkers Corner to Emene at the Eastern side, and from Uwani towards Achara Layout to Idaw River and Gariki at the Southern side of the city. (Fig 2).
This pattern of growth in residential areas calls for an integrated approach involving the handling, collected, transporting and disposal of wastes in the city.
1.8 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study focuses on the evaluation of solid waste generated, composition and its management in Achara layout. The scope of the study covers solid waste generated from households. The amount of solid waste generated by individual households was presented to the researcher for weighing. In the course of the study, the residents were skeptical; and the ENSEPA and PSP personnel interviewed were scared of being indicted. About 20% of these respondents were initially uncooperative though their fears was allayed after convincing them on the importance of the study. Finally, a major handicap that cannot in any way be ignored is time and money constraint.
1.9 THE PLAN OF THE STUDY
This study is divided into five chapters, chapter one deals with the introduction, background of the problem, study problem, aim of the study, objective of the study, research questions, research hypothesis, conceptual frame work of the study, the study area, scope and limitations of the study, overview of the study; chapter two is the review of related literature-solid waste management in developed economies and solid waste management in developing economies; chapter three is Reaersch methodology - the data need, sources of data, method of data collection, method of data analysis, and problems of data collection and analysis; chapter four is data presentation and analysis, and discussion; chapter five is summary, conclusion and recommendations.