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BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Built-up means the built- up areas, while Expansion is a space through which anything is expanded (Advanced English Dictionary).
Built-up areas have been expanding throughout the world. Monitoring and prediction of the built-up is not only important for the economic development but also acts as sentinels of environmental decline important for ecologically sustainable development of a region. (ARER, 2003).
In the year 2000, urban areas occupied only about 2% - 3% of the earth’s surface; However, they sheltered nearly half the world’s population. The rapid expansion of urban areas, is dramatically changing the landscape of the urban-rural fringe, clearly highlighting the intensity of the ecological footprints of cities. The ecological footprint is defined as “the total area of productive land and water required continuously to produce all the resources consumed and to assimilate all the wastes produced, by a defined population, wherever on earth that land is located”. Kitzes, etal (2007). The wealthy quarter of the world’s population consume over three-quarters of world’s resources, and of the total global resource depletion and pollution, contribution from cities is probably 70% or more. (RWWMEIA, 1996). For example, the per capital ecological footprint of North Americans is 4-5 ha/capita, which accounts for three times their fair share of the Earth’s bounty. Similarly Japan’s footprint is about 2.5 ha/capita and the Netherland’s is 3.3 ha/capita, accounting for about eight and is times greater than the areas of total domestic territories respectively. Lenzen and Murray found Australian’s ecological footprint to be about
13.6 ha/capita, if determined in terms of actual land use on all types of land. These footprints are associated with the provision of non-farm job opportunities, shifts to higher-valued farm enterprises (such as vegetables, fruits, or livestock) to meet the demands of urban consumers.
On the other hand, the provision of environmental services and landscape amenities place heavy demands on the ecological system in terms of resource extraction, disposal of waste, and discharge of pollutants. Urbanization is mostly taking up agricultural lands and it is estimated that one to two million hectares of cropland are being taken out of production every year in developing countries to meet the land demand for housing, industry, infrastructure, and recreation. The 20th century witnessed some of the most dramatic urban transformations in the history of earth’s terrestrial environments. Lenzen, etal (2007).
1.1 Statement of Research Problem
Urban environment is one of the most dynamic systems on earth and rapid urbanization has been a major development in most parts of the world. The effects of urban concentration become noticed in the 19th century with the alarming rate of urban population, and this trend continues. (De Sherbinin etal, 2002) noted that several decades of accelerating urban growth have exerted profound environmental socio-economic impacts felt in every parts of the world. The continuously growing population culminates in overcrowding resulting in pressure on the land and, consequently, becomes a burden to limited civic cycle amenities forcing the “middle class” as well as the builders to move to outlying suburbs, a phenomenon called urban growth or sprawl.
The European Environment Agency (2006) likened urban sprawl to unplanned, incremental urban development, characterized by low-density mix of land uses on the urban fringe. It is the physical pattern of low –density expansion of large urban areas mainly in to the surrounding agricultural areas. Burak and Karen (2008) identified three phases of urban growth and develop scenarios to evaluate the impact of urban growth on several environmental indicators: land use, air quality, and demand for water and energy.
Unchecked and unmanaged urban growth has been attributed to lack of adoption of efficient and effective urban planning tools, sustainable development is often proposed. UN-Habitat (2008) presented global report on planning sustainable cities, which reveals that developed countries have adopted some innovative approaches in recent decades for achieving a sustainable urban environment. Among such approaches are strategic spatial planning, use of spatial planning to integrate public sector functions, new land regularization and management approaches. However, contrary is the case in developing countries where older forms of master planning still persist. This approach fails to accommodate the ways of life of the majority of the inhabitants in rapidly growing and largely poor and informal cities. It has not been flexible to planning spatial structures of the cities which have enhanced the unbridled expansion of cities as well as laxity of monitoring and evaluation of urban plans. This have over time often directly contributed to social and spatial marginalization. Likewise in some areas they could not even follow the guide line provided by the master plan, which in return may result to so many environmental problems, such as flooding, pollution, climate change and land degradation all of which can be happen as a result of building on where it is not supposed to be for example on a drainage line, refuse dump places and in a shelter belt or forest reserves.
Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto is one of the oldest tertiary Institution in the northern region, since it was founded in 1975, it is always increasing both in terms of the student population and staff strength which necessitate the expansion of buildings.
In considering the research problem of the study area, there is the poor implementation process of the original master plan in the University where only 52% of the building structures are implemented which corresponded or tally to the original master plan (Zayyanu 2015), this occurred as a result of insufficient funding of capital project and also the increase in population which could linked to increase in number of the student’s enrolment. This common phenomena lead to the deviation of some structures from their original locations due to lack of funds to compensate settlers of some surrounding villages within the study area. However, insufficient fund also made it difficult to construct buildings far away from academic core area as these buildings cannot be link to amenities like water and electricity supply. Among the deviation areas are old Faculty of Management Sciences now Mathematics Department, Mini Market, and Faculty of Education among others.
It is in view of the foregoing that, the research work will be conducted to assess the extent of built-up expansion in the area using remote sensing and GIS application as a tool.
1.2 Aims and Objectives
The aim of this study is to assess the built up expansion in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto for sustainable development.
The specific objectives in this study include;
1. To determine the trend and direction of built-up expansion in the permanent site of Usmanu
Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
2. To identify the deviation of built-up in relation to the original master plan
1.3 Research Question
It is believed that the expansion of the University could be linked to socio-economic determinant of the management, students, employees, as well as the people living (settlers) within the campus. It is in view of these that the study seek to find answers to the following research questions;
1. How does the built up expansion contributes to the overall development of the University?
2. To what extent did the built-up expansion conformed with the master plan?
3. What is the direction of built up expansion?
1.4 Justification of the Study
Remote sensing is a means of non-contact data capture and GIS is a tool for data management. The integration of both systems provides effective and efficient tool for urban planning and management. For instance, Shupeng, etal (2000) integrated remote sensing and GIS application in analysis of urban growth in china. They emphasized the early application of remote sensing to environmental monitoring and resources investigation and its achievements in china since the early 1970s.
However, this study focus on the assessment of built-up expansion in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto. Therefore, this study tend to incorporate an integrated approach of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques. Similar studies conducted in the study area which did not explore the use of these spatial technology includes; An Apraisal of the Usmanu Dan Fodiyo University Sokoto Master Plan from 1980 to 2004 by
Zayyanu (2005), Growth and Expansion of Dandima Area by Zainaf (2005), Land Use Pattern and Soil Characteristic in Villages Around Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto by Bara’atu
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study covers Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, comprising all Faculties, Libraries, Lecture Halls, Research Centers, V.C Complex, V.C Quarters, and Students Hostel as well as surrounding settlements.
The study emphasizes on built-up expansion in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto from 2007 to 2015.
1.6 Significance of Study
The output data analysis of this research work will aid the school management, government and stake holders in the following ways;
1. Aid decision making processes and implementation strategies for rapid development of infrastructures, facilities, and intensive expansion of built-up land.
2. To identify the location of newly built faculties, Departments, Lecture halls, research centers and Library among others facilities in line with the institution master plan.
3.To make futures predictions on the growth and development of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto.
Other students and researchers will benefit immensely from these studies since it provide the data and information regarding to the impact of the expansion of the University.
1.7 Study Area
Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto (UDUS) formerly University of Sokoto, is one of the initial twelve federal Universities in Nigeria founded in 1975. It is in the ancient city of Sokoto. The school is named after Usmanu Dan Fodio, the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate. It currently has ten Faculties (Agriculture, Arts, Education, Law, Management Sciences, Social Sciences, Medical College, and Veterinary Sciences. In addition, it has a Postgraduate School and four research centers (Centre for Islamic Studies, Centre for Hausa Studies, Centre for Energy Research, Centre for Environmental Studies and Centre for Peace Studies). Its Students come from across Nigeria and West Africa.
1.7.1 Geographical Location
Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto is located between latitudes 13• 07I41.094IIN and longitudes 5•1I54.055IIE respectively. The Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto lies to the north west part of Sokoto State and share its borders with ‘Yar Kanta village to the north, Sokoto rimariver to the south, Makera and Gidan yaro villages to the West, and Sokoto-Gwadabawa-Ilela Border Road to the East, all of which are fall in Wamakko Local Government in Sokoto, Sokoto State.
1.7.2 Physical Characteristics
The topography of the study area is dominated by the famous dissects plain and provides the rich alluvial soil fit for a variety of crop cultivation in the area. There are also isolated hills and mountain ranges scattered all over the area.
During the cold season; the climate is dominated by hamatten wind blowing sahara dust over the land. The dust dims sunlight, thereby lowering temperatures significantly and also leading to the inconvenience of dust everywhere in the area. While in the hot season however, the maximum daytime temperatures are generally under 40•C (104.0•f) in most of the year.
In terms of Vegetation, Usmanu Danfodiyo University falls within the Savanna zone. This is an open tse-tse fly-free grassland suitable for cultivation of grain crops and animal husbandry.
Sokoto Caliphate: (phD. Thesis) A S. A.B.U Zaria.
Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto is in the dry sahel surrounded by sandy savannah and isolated hills. With an annual average temperature of 28.3•C (82.9•f), it is one of the hottest area in the world. The warmest months are February to April, where daytime temperatures can exceed 45•C (113.0•F). The highest recorded temperature is 47.2•C (117.0•f), which is also the highest recorded temperature in Nigeria. The rainy season is from June to October, during which showers are daily occurrence. The showers rarely last long and are far cry from the regular torrential showers known in many tropical regions. From late October to February, during the cold season, the climate is dominated by the harmattan wind blowing sahara dust over the land. A Brief History and Geography of Sokoto State, Retrieved (2007) by Abubakar S.
The area’s lifeline for growing crops is the floodplains of the Sokoto-Rima River System, which are covered with alluvial soil. For the rest, the general dryness of the area allows for few crops, millet perhaps being the most abundant, complemented by maize, rice, and other cereals and beans. Apart from tomatoes, few vegetables grow in the area. The low variety of foodstuffs, available has resulted in the relatively dull local cuisine.
Rain starts late and end early with mean annual rainfall ranging between 500mm and 1300mm there are two major seasons in the area, namely wet and dry. The dry season starts from October, and lasts up to April in some times it may extend to May or June in other times. The wet season on the other hand begins in most of the time in May and lasts up to September or October. The harmattan, dry, cold and fairly dust wind is experience in the area between November and February. Heat is more severe in the area in March and April. But the weather in the area is always cold in the morning and hot in the afternoons, save in peak harmattern period. Abubakar S. (2007).
The topography of the area is dominated by famous Hausa plain of northern Nigeria. The vast fadama land of the Sokoto-Rima River Systems dissects the plain and provides the rich alluvial soil fit for a variety of crops cultivation in the area.
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. As at 2012 it had a total population of 17,969 undergraduate students, 2155 postgraduate students, 1248 sub-degree students and 1336 predegree students, giving a total students population of 22,708. The University at present runs about 155 post graduate programmes (49 PhD, 26 MPhil, 65 Masters’ programmes and 15 post graduate diploma programmes). End of Tenure Report (2014).
The staff strength of the University rose from 48 (academic, technical and administrative) in 1977 to 942 academic staff on various appointments (full-time, sabbatical, contract or visiting) and about 2000 others (administrative and technical) in 2012. End of Tenure Report (2014). Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto indeed, is one of the most cosmopolitan campuses in the country, drawing its staff and students from across the country and neighboring countries. In addition, international scholars from African as well as other part of the world either on full-time appointment or short visits through the University’s wide range of linkages and collaborations with institutions around the world also form part of the available staff in the University
Students constitute a major part of the University system and therefore, students’ enrolment is quite important in the sustainability of any institution. Statistics shows the details on students distribution, students staff ratio, graduation rate and classes of degree obtained by graduates of the University between 2005/06 and 2013/14 sessions. It is clear that the population of students in the University for the period improved from 13:1 to 8:1, which indicates a significant increase in the number of staff when compared to students enrolment.
In the same vein, every state of the Federation and the capital Territory is represented in the student population of UDUS while international students constitute 1.13% of the entire students body.
In terms of staff population also statistics shows that, at present, there is total of 1113 academic staff on various appointments in the University compared to 760 in 2010 to 2011 session giving an increase of 31.7%. Similarly, the strength of other categories of non-academic staff increased in order to meet up with the academic and administrative support services in the University due to enormous expansion in academic programmes, infrastructure and facilities. End of Tenure Report (2014).
1.8 Material and Methods
This section provide details of the step by step approaches for the research project. It tend to discuss the data collected, processing and method of analysis.
An integrated approach of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques as well as statistical methods are used to assess the built-up land expansion patterns in the area.
1.8.1 Materials and Softwares
Among the materials and software to be use in this study, include the following;
1. Microsoft word
2. Microsoft excel
3. ArcGis 9.3
4. Ilwis 3.6
5. Satellite imageries
6. Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
7. Lap Top
1.8.2 Types and Source of Data
For the purpose of this research, two types of data were used. These are primary and secondary data. Primary data includes, field observation, structured questionnaire, and interview were used, while the secondary data was collected from relevant published materials such as textbooks, journal articles, dissertations, satellite imageries, maps, reports and the internet
The characteristics of some of the data to be used in this study are indicated in table 1.
Table1. Data types and sources